In the last three decades, labour casualization has become synonymous with Public Service reform in many developing countries. Reforms were meant to restructure and streamline public service delivery by establishing a more flexible workforce.

Yet, labour casualization brings with it significant uncertainties such as diminished security of tenure, minimal employment protectionsceive ageing as a gift from God and should be embraced wholeheartedly but this is not necessarily translated into practice.

Nonetheless, spirituality remains prominent and heightened as one grows older.

This study also demonstrated how these women’s ageing experience is mediated by structural influences. They include ongoing Islamisation discourse, strong Malay cultural and Islamic values, interdependence of family structure (social expectation of filial piety) and social rapport and network.

Their experiences reveal a nuance understanding and diverse narratives of ageing. These findings open up new possibilities of understanding ageing in non-Western contexts.

Keywords: Labour casualization, labour market flexibility, new public management, structural labour relations, public service reform, public service delivery


Cordelia Belezaire is a CARPIMS scholar from Belize who recently completed her MA in Governance Studies.

Contact: cordeliabelezaire@hotmail.com